How to Create Dynamic NFTs Using Unlock Protocol

By leveraging some of the important features of the Unlock contracts, it is possible to create dynamic NFTs and make the visual NFT evolve over time using on-chain data characteristics.

By Julien Genestoux on

Tales of Elatora is a game where players need an avatar to play. The Avatars are non-fungible tokens using the Unlock protocol contract. There are two factions: the Buntai and the Gundan.

Players also need weapons to play. Weapons are also NFTs, and a Buntai avatar can only use a Buntai weapon and a Gundan avatar can only use a Gundan weapon. Anyone who buys an avatar automatically receives a matching weapon, as you can see on this transaction for example.

2 NFT

The OnKeyPurchase hook

The PublicLock contract is highly programmable through the use of hooks. These hooks are external contracts that are used to alter the behavior of a PublicLock contract or trigger actions in other contracts. Any lock manager can configure hooks on a lock using the setEventHooks function. Each hook needs to implement a few functions and you can also use a single hook contract with all functions.

onKeyPurchaseHook is one of the hooks. This hook is called when the purchase function of a lock is called. It needs to implement 2 distinct functions:

  • keyPurchasePrice: this first function is called with the address of the sender of the purchase transaction, the address of the recipient of the NFT membership, as well as the referrer and data parameters of the purchase function. The return value is the price paid for this specific membership. If your contract wants to offer discounts to a list of addresses or change the price based on how much time has passed since the last purchase, this function is a great way to achieve that!

  • onKeyPurchase: this second function is called with the same arguments as keyPurchasePrice (from, recipient, referrer and data), but also with the minimum price this user has to pay as well as the price they actually paid (this would be different in the context of tips for example). This function is called at the tail end of the purchase function as a way to trigger other actions.

Tales of Elatora's avatar contract uses a hook to airdrop a weapon to anyone who buys an avatar automatically! Here is the code:

  function onKeyPurchase(
    address, /*from*/
    address recipient,
    address, /*referrer*/
    bytes calldata, /*data*/
    uint256, /*minKeyPrice*/
    uint256 /*pricePaid*/
  ) external {
    if (msg.sender == _avatarLock) {
      // If the sender is the avatar lock
      IPublicLock avatar = IPublicLock(_avatarLock);
      uint id = avatar.totalSupply();

      address[] memory recipients = new address[](1);
      recipients[0] = recipient;

      uint[] memory expirations = new uint[](1);
      expirations[0] = type(uint256).max; // Not expiring!

      address[] memory managers = new address[](1);
      managers[0] = recipient;

      if (id % 2 == 0) {
        IPublicLock(_buntaiLock).grantKeys(recipients, expirations, managers);
      } else {
        IPublicLock(_gundanLock).grantKeys(recipients, expirations, managers);
      }
    }
  }

The Avatars are such that every even number is a Buntai and every odd is a Gundan. The hook calls the grantKeys function on the right contract based on that. Of course, that means that the Hook contract has been previously set to be a keyGranter on both locks (see more info on the roles).

The onTokenUri Hook

An even more exciting hook that the PublicLock contract includes is the onTokenUri hook. This hook alters how the tokenUri method behaves. This method is the one in charge of yielding the URI that itself renders the JSON blob that includes the image, and other metadata for each individual Non Fungible Token.

The URI that the contract yields can in fact be a data URL. Data URLs, URLs prefixed with the data: scheme, are self-referrential: the URL itself contains the data that's represented by the browser. Here is an example: data://text,hello%20unlock is a URL which opens as a new page whose content is just "hello unlock".

By using a data URL as the tokenUri return, we can render metadata dynamically. The Tales of Elatora avatars are using this technique to render the image differently based on 2 things:

  • whether the owner of the avatar also owns a weapon, and in which case, render the avatar along with the weapon
  • whether the avatar is rendered during the day, at night, or during sunset.

Once configured, the onTokenUri hook will let the Public Lock contract call a 3rd party contract to generate the JSON. Given an image string (see below for more details), this is what the Tales of Elatora Public lock does:

// Create the json that includes the image
// It is also possible to add more properties to the JSON object
string memory json = string(
    abi.encodePacked('{ "image": "', image, '"')
);

// render the base64 encoded json metadata
return
    string(
        abi.encodePacked(
            "data:application/json;base64,",
            Base64.encode(bytes(abi.encodePacked(json)))
        )
    );

We now only have to generate the image itself. Using the same technique, it would be perfectly possible create an SVG (or another image type!) on the fly, but Tales of Elatora used another approach: dynamically generating URLs pointing to files pre-uploaded on IPFS. Then, they use the contract's state to generate the URL that it needs to point to.

Caroline and David, leads on the Tales of Elatora project, generated images of all the possible combinations of avatars, weapons and backgrounds (including the absence of a weapon), and then uploaded all of the images to IPFS using the following pattern: {avatar-id}-{weapon-id}-{background}.svg.

The hook implements its own tokenURI method.

function tokenURI(
    address lockAddress,
    address operator, // We could alter the rendering based on _who_ is viewing!
    address owner,
    uint256 keyId,
    uint256 expirationTimestamp // a cool trick could be to render based on how far the expiration is
) external view returns (string memory) {
   // ...
   // custom implementation
   /// ...
}

Specificaly, Tales of Elatora implements the hook by first checking if the owner of the Avatar also owns a corresponding weapon. If so, the final URL will include point to it (the {weapon-id} part), if not, it will use 0 for the {weapon-id}.

Similarly, the background of the image is dynamic and changes based on the time of the day! If the contract's tokenUri is called between 8am and 5pm GMT, it will render the day background, if it is queried between 5pm and 9pm GMT, it will render the sunset background, and if it is queried between 9pm and 8am GMT, it will render the night background.

Using etherscan, you can easily retrieve the metadata. Here is what token 1 renders as I am writing this post:

data:application/json;base64,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

Opening this data URI in a new tab will yield the following JSON:

{
  "image": "ipfs://QmPeCBcmWFiMrLNLtBUjaZ6yBtp1LhmDqAVXmjXRHx7qLZ/TalesOfElatoraCollection_Final_2/1-1-2.svg",
  "attributes": [
    { "trait_type": "faction", "value": "gundan" },
    { "trait_type": "momentOfDay", "value": "sunset" },
    { "trait_type": "class", "value": "Rogue" }
  ],
  "description": "Tales of Elatora is a community-driven fantasy world, written novel and an RPG. This ToE NFT grants access to the story, the game, the community and gives the holder voting rights. https://talesofelatora.com/",
  "external_url": "https://talesofelatora.com/",
  "name": "Tales of Elatora Avatar 1"
}

And of course the image can easily be rendered using the following. It was rendered at sunset, and the owner currently owns this weapon.

Tales of Elatora

Dynamic contracts

The core goal of the Unlock Protocol is to build a standard for memberships, where all memberships, from Amazon Prime, to Medium's member program, or the Tales of Elatora game work the same, in the same way that every website is made of the same core protocols: HTML, HTTP and others! However, exactly like every website can also be different, we believe memberships can also look and behave differently on some aspects.

Are you interested in deploying your own custom membership? Get in touch!

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